T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)

T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are neoplasms of immature T-cell precursors or lymphoblasts. T-ALL is less common than B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and accounts for approximately 15% of all childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases. These neoplasms tend to occur in older adolescents, with a male predominance.

As stated in the current World Health Organization classification, T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is a neoplasm of lymphoblasts committed to T-cell lineage involving bone marrow (BM), blood, or presenting as a tissue-based mass involving the thymus, lymph nodes, or extranodal sites.

Immunophenotypic Subtypes of T-ALL/T-LBL

 

Subtype                                  Key Markers (Cytoplasmic CD3 With)

Pro–T-ALL (T-I)                                                CD7+

Pre–T-ALL (T-11)                   CD2+ and/or CD5+ and/or CD8+

Cortical T-ALL (T-III)                                       CD1a+

Mature T-ALL (T-IV)                            Surface CD3+ (CD1a–)

T-ALL, T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia; T-LBL, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Immunophenotyping:

Example: Cortical T-ALL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Above figure shows case of Cortical T-ALL, which shows( blasts-red and lymphocytes blue) positivity for cCD3, CD7, CD1a, CD10 dim, CD5 dim and negative for CD34, CD3, CD2, CD8, CD4, CD19, CD10, CD13, MPO, cCD79a.

Example: Pre T-ALL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Above figure shows case of Pre T-ALL, which shows( blasts-red and lymphocytes blue) positivity for cCD3, CD7, CD10 dim, CD5, CD2 dim, CD34 dim and negative for CD1a, CD3, CD8, CD4, CD19, CD13, MPO, cCD79a, CD117.

Reference:

  • Onciu M. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Hematol Oncol ClinNorth Am.2009;23:655-674.

  • Borowitz MJ, Chan JKC. T lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al,eds.World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC; 2008:176-178.

  • Pui CH, Howard SC. Current management and challenges of malignant disease in the CNS in paediatric leukaemia. Lancet Oncol.2008;9:257-268.

  •  Goldberg JM, Silverman LB, Levy DE, et al. Childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute acute lymphoblastic leukemia consortium experience.J Clin Oncol.2003;21:3616-3622.

  • Oudot C, Auclerc MF, Levy V, et al. Prognostic factors for leukemic induction failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and outcome after salvage therapy: the FRALLE 93 study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:1496-1503.

  • Bene MC, Castoldi G, Knapp W, et al. Proposals for the immunological classification of acute leukemias. European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias(EGIL).Leukemia.1995;9:1783-1786.

  • Van Vlierberghe P, Ferrando A. The molecular basisof T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.J Clin Invest.2012;122:3398-3406.

  • Roti G, Stegmaier K. Targeting NOTCH1 in hematopoieticmalignancy.Crit Rev Oncog.2011;16:103-115.

  • Weng AP, Ferrando AA, Lee W, et al. Activating mutations of NOTCH1 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Science.2004;306:269-271.

  • Fogelstrand L, Staffas A, Wasslavik C, et al. Prognostic implications of mutations in NOTCH1 and FBXW7 in childhood T-ALL treated according to the NOPHOALL-1992 and ALL-2000 protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:424-430.

  • Kraszewska MD, Dawidowska M, Szczepanski T, et al. T-cellacute lymphoblastic leukaemia: recent molecular biologyfindings.Br J Haematol. 2012;156:303-315.

  • Ferrando AA, Neuberg DS, Staunton J, et al. Geneexpression signatures define novel oncogenic pathways in Tcell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Cancer Cell.2002;1:75-87.

  • Coustan-Smith E, Mullighan CG, Onciu M, et al. EarlyT-cell precursor leukaemia: a subtype of very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Lancet Oncol.2009;10:147-156.

  • Zhang J, Ding L, Holmfeldt L, et al. The genetic basis of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nature. 2012;481:157-163.

  • Van Vlierberghe P, Ambesi-Impiombato P, Perez-Garcia A, et al. ETV6 mutations in early immature human T cell leukemias. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2571-2579.

  • Raanani P, Trakhtenbrot L, Rechavi G, et al. Philadelphia- chromosome-positive T-lymphoblastic leukemia: acute leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia blastic crisis.ActaHaematol.2005;113:181-189.

  • Jiang G, Zhang M, Yue B, et al. PTK7: a new biomarkerfor immunophenotypic characterization of maturing Tcells and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Leuk Res. 2012;36:1347-1353.

T-ALL CORTICAL.png
TALL.png

       Article invited for

          Vol 6,Issue 3,

                  2021

Scholar Google Plagiarism Software

For More

flowcytometry events