(Flow Cytometry Based Knowledge Portal)
APL(Acute promyelocytic leukemia) (AML M3):
Either hypergranular or microgranular / hypogranular, 5 - 8% of AML cases.Median age 35 - 40 years but can occur at any age. Decreased WBC count (hypergranular variant) at presentation with abnormal promyelocytes.Usually disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and hemorrhage before or during induction chemotherapy, which may cause early death. Rarely organomegaly, extramedullary disease, skin involvement. Criteria for diagnosis: most cells (> 50%) are abnormal promyelocytes with heavy cytoplasmic granulation that may obscure the nuclear cytoplasmic margin, often reniform or bilobed nucleus; cells with multiple Auer bodies usually present; also bundles of Auer rods ("faggot cells" - resembles bundle of sticks). Note: if t(15;17) present, diagnose as AML even if initial blast count is < 20%
Prognostic factors-In children, age < 10 years is favorable. Survival: excellent if DIC and hemorrhage are adequately controlled; excellent in adults with complete remission. flow cytometry is not diagnostic for APL, and must be confirmed with retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARα) :
Positive for CD9, CD11a and CD11b, Bright and heterogenous espression (CD2 (23%), CD13, CD33, CD64 (27%)), myeloperoxidase (strong) and HLA-DR (9%), Variable CD34, CD71 and CD99 while Negative for CD11b (but post-treatment is positive), CD11c, CD14, CD36, CD41, CD61, CD18(some time dim expression) and glycophorin A
HYPERGRANULAR APL SHOWS: Blast(red) and lymphocytes(green). blasts are positive for CD9+, CD4+, CD11b+, CD13+, CD33+, CD15+, CD123+,CD14+,CD64+CD45+, CD38+ WHILE CD117-, CD15-, CD2-, CD19-, HLA-DR-,CD56-, CD18-.Pink color population is basophils
HYPERGRANULAR APL SHOWS: Blast(red) and lymphocytes(green). blasts are positive for CD9+, CD4+, , CD11b+, CD13+, CD33+, CD15+, CD123+,CD14+,CD64+CD45+,CD15dim, while negative for CD117-, CD2-, CD19-, HLA-DR-,CD56-,CD38-, CD18-. Pink color population is basophils
HYPOGRANULAR APL SHOWS: Blast(red) and lymphocytes(green). blasts are positive for CD9+, CD4+, CD11b+, CD13+, CD33+, CD25+, CD123+,CD14+,CD64+CD45+,CD15dim, CD117dim while negative for CD2-, CD19-, HLA-DR-,CD56-,CD38-, CD18-, CD15-, CD36-, CD7- .
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