top of page

Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS is often referred to as a “bone marrow failure disorder”commonly found in the aging population.


Antigenic expression of the myelomonocytic series and CD34+ cell subsets were analyzed using four color combinations of MoAbs:







  • Cazzola M, Malcovati L. Myelodysplastic syndromes--coping with ineffective hematopoiesis. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:536–8. [PubMed]

  • Bergamaschi G, Markopoulos K, Albertini R, Di Sabatino A, Biagi F, Ciccocioppo R, et al. Anemia of chronic disease and defective erythropoietin production in patients with celiac disease. Haematologica. 2008;93:1785–91. [PubMed]

  • Mufti GJ, Bennett JM, Goasguen J, Bain BJ, Baumann I, Brunning R, et al. Diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndrome: International Working Group on Morphology of myelodysplastic syndrome (IWGM-MDS) consensus proposals for the definition and enumeration of myeloblasts and ring sideroblasts. Haematologica. 2008;93:1712–7. [PubMed]

  • Della Porta MG, Malcovati L, Boveri E, Travaglino E, Pietra D, Pascutto C, et al. Clinical relevance of bone marrow fibrosis and CD34-positive cell clusters in primary myelodysplastic syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:754–62. [PubMed]

  • Bennett JM, Orazi A. Diagnostic criteria to distinguish hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia from hypocellular myelodysplastic syndromes and aplastic anemia: recommendations for a standardized approach. Haematologica. 2009;94:264–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

  • Brunning RDAO, Germing U, Le Beau MM, Porwit A, Bauman I, et al. Myelodysplastic syndromes/Neoplasms, overview. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, Stein H, et al., editors. WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Lyon: IARC; 2008. pp. 88–93.

  • Haase D, Germing U, Schanz J, Pfeilstocker M, Nosslinger T, Hildebrandt B, et al. New insights into the prognostic impact of the karyotype in MDS and correlation with subtypes: evidence from a core dataset of 2124 patients. Blood. 2007;110:4385–95. [PubMed]

  • Mallo M, Arenillas L, Espinet B, Salido M, Hernandez JM, Lumbreras E, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization improves the detection of 5q31 deletion in myelodysplastic syndromes without cytogenetic evidence of 5q. Haematologica. 2008;93:1001–8. [PubMed]

  • Cazzola M. Myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated 5q deletion (5q- syndrome). A clonal stem cell disorder characterized by defective ribosome biogenesis. Haematologica. 2008;93:967–72. [PubMed]

  • Vardiman JW, Harris NL, Brunning RD. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms. Blood. 2002;100:2292–302. [PubMed]

  • Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DAG, et al. (1982) Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 51: 189–199.Google Scholar

  • Swerdlow S, Camp E, Harris N, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA, et al. (2008) WHO classification of tumors of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Lyon: IARC.

  • Yin CC, Medeiros LJ, Bueso-Ramos CE (2010) Recent advances in the diagnosis and classification of myeloid neoplasms-comments on the 2008 WHO classification. Int J Lab Hematol 32: 461–476.View Article

  • Valent P, Horny HP, Bennett JM, Fonatsch C, Germing U, et al. (2007) Definitions and standards in the diagnosis and treatment of the myelodysplastic syndromes: Consensus statements and report from a working conference. Leuk Res 31: 727–739.View Article

  • Lorand-Metze I, Pinheiro MP, Ribeiro E, de Paula EV, Metze K (2004) Factors influencing survival in myelodysplastic syndromes in a Brazilian population: Comparison of FAB and WHO classifications. Leuk Res 28: 587–594.View Article

  • Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, Fenaux P, Morel P, et al. (1997) International scoring system for evaluation in MDS. Blood 89: 2079–2088.View Article

  • Schanz J, Tüchler H, Solé F, Mallo M, Luño E, et al. (2012) New comprehensive cytogenetic scoring system for primary myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia after MDS derived from an international database merge. J Clin Oncol 30: 820–829.View Article

  • Pardanani A, Tefferi AC (2012) Cytogenetic risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes: are we there yet? J Clin Oncol 30: 2703–2704.View Article

  • Greenberg P, Tuechler H, Schanz J, Sanz G, Garcia-Manero G, et al. (2012) Revised International Prognostic Scoring System for myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 120: 2454–2465.View Article

  • Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Strupp C, Ambaglio I, Kuendgen A, et al. (2011) Impact of the degree of anemia on the outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and its integration into the WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS). Haematologica 96: 1433–1440.View Article

  • Thol F, Yun H, Sonntang AK, Damm F, Weissinger EM, et al. (2012) Prognostic significance of combined MN1, ERG, BAALC, and EV11 (MEBE) expression in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol 91: 1221–1233.View Article

  • Bejar R, Stevenson K, Abdel-Wahab O, Galili N, Nilsson B, et al. (2012) Clinical effect of point mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes. N Engl J Med 364: 2496–2506.View Article

  • Stetler-Stevenson M (2009) Flow cytometric immunophenotyping: emerging as an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of cytopenic patients. Leuk Res 33: 1020–1021.View Article

  • Lorand-Metze I, Ribeiro E, Lima CSP, Batista LS, Metze K (2007) Detection of hematopoietic maturation abnormalities by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes and its utility for the differential diagnosis with non-clonal disorders. Leuk Res 31: 147–155.View Article

bottom of page